By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main finished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken through nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in accordance with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main whole description to this point of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical therapy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams in the course of the Indian elimination of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few childrens communicate the language. even if extra young children one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to conserving the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely very important. Compiled via the top scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic advisor to local audio system and an imperative guide for linguists.
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Extra resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
While there is a pro-verb that corresponds to a verb plus its object, there are no comparable pro-verbs that correspond to a verb plus its subject. If we make the assumption that anaphoric elements refer to constituents, then we have evidence that the verb plus object forms a constituent, while the verb plus subject does not.
The only consonants that do not end words are b, lh, w, y and ch. Ch, however, requires some special discussion. Although no 20 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR native Choctaw nouns end in ch, there is a t least one borrowed noun, kalaach 'collards', which does have this final consonant. Some Mississippi Choctaw personal names also end in ch: (12) Laach Tiich Naach (a man's name) (a man's name) (a woman's name) Verb roots must end with a vowel, but every verb root must be followed by a t least one suffix, so the final vowel of the verb root is never in word-final position.
In casual speech initial i may be deleted before sC or shC: (lla) Iskitiini-h. - Skitiini-h. ' - ishpzha' INSTR-dig-NML 'shovel' (noun) (1lb) isht-pzha- ' - shpzha' There is one example of a borrowed word with an initial bl cluster, bliasis p l ~ e s ~'molasses, s] syrup'. 2. Possible onsets and rimes Syllables may begin with any vowel or with any consonant other than glottal stop. As noted above, a syllable generally begins with a t most one consonant, but there are a small number of cases where words begin with consonant clusters.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD